Wednesday, 10 November 2021
Hackers & Cyber Attacks | Tech-blogging.com.
he news, which is full of stories of individuals, corporations, and countries being cyber attacked by hackers, or people who
However, not all hackers are malevolent.
Hackers look find faults to make systems safer and more resilient.
Companies and governments frequently hire them to conduct security assessments.
"White Hats" are the term for these hackers.
They're the nice folks, you know.
On the other hand, there are hostile exploit, and sell computer vulnerabilities and data.
Hackers' motivations are likewise diverse.
Some hackers do it for fun and curiosity, while thieves do it for profit.
Hacktivists, on the other hand, use their skills to advance a social or political cause.
This is only the top of the iceberg.
Basically, the stereotype of a hacker as an unpopular kid sitting in a dark room filled of old pizza boxes arguably represents John Green in college more accurately than hackers.
We're not going to teach you how to hack today.
Instead, we'll go over some classic examples of how hackers break into computers to show you how it's done.
The most typical approach for hackers to get access to computer systems is to dupe users into letting them in.
This is known as social engineering, and attackers access.
attack, which usually takes the form of enter into an account on a website, such as your bank's website.
You'll be invited to click a link in the email that appears legitimate to the untrained eye but is actually a malicious clone.
When you enter your username and password, sent directly to you on the genuine website.
It's bad news!
Even if a tenth of one percent of them may result in a thousand compromised accounts.
Pretexting is a firm and confidently pretend to be from their IT department.
Attackers frequently dial a first number and then request to be switched to a second, giving the firm.
persuade an unwary victim to configure their machine in a vulnerable manner or to divulge sensitive information such as passwords or network configurations.
Attackers can be highly convincing, especially if they do some preliminary investigation to learn the identities of key personnel.
It may take ten phone calls to locate a victim, yet only one is required to get in.
Emails are also a typical distribution route for trojan horses, which are programs that appear to be harmless attachments, such as a photo or an invoice, but are actually harmful software known as malware.
Malware comes in a variety of shapes and sizes.
Some people may try to steal your personal information, such as your banking credentials.
Others may use
If they can't employ malware or persuade a victim to let them in, attackers must resort to alternative methods.
One way, which we briefly mentioned in the previous episode, is to brute force a password, which entails trying until you obtain access.
Most current systems protect against this type of attack by making you wait longer and longer a set number of tries.
NAND Mirroring is create a perfect replica
arrangement until the gadget starts making you wait.
When this happens, simply resetting it and to attempt more passwords right away.
This trick worked on an iPhone 5C, however many later smartphones have built
this type of assault.
You must discover a technique to as over it.
In general, an attacker must locate and exploit.
A buffer overflow is a frequent form of exploit.
A storing data is referred to as a buffer.
Consider the which has fields for a username and password.
The text values behind the scenes.
Let's pretend these buffers are ten by ten by ten by ten by ten by ten by ten by ten by ten by ten by
The two text buffers would appear something like this in memory:
Of fact, the operating system keeps track of a lot more than simply a login and password, thus data will be saved
login and password, where they can be validated.
A buffer overflow attack does exactly what it says on the tin: it causes the buffer to overrun.
Any password longer than 10 characters will overwrite it in this instance.
Because key values are rewritten
Crashing a system is awful, and perhaps that's all a malicious hacker wants to do is cause trouble.
However, attackers might use this flaw
Hackers can bypass things like login prompts and even use a program to hijack the entire system if they have the capacity to arbitrarily change a program's memory.
Buffer overflow attacks can be dealt with in a variety of ways.
Programs can also randomly place variables in memory, such as our example "is admin" flag, so that hackers don't know which memory address to alter and are more likely to crash the program than obtain access.
In addition, programs can leave free space after buffers and monitor those values to see if they change; if they do, they know an attacker is messing with memory.
These areas are known as canaries, after the little birds that miners used to bring underground to alert them of hazardous circumstances.
It's most typically employed against websites that use databases, which almost all large websites do.
Because databases aren't covered in this course, here's a simple example to show how this type of attack works.
We'll use the Structured Query Language, or S
known as sequel.
Assume our login prompt is now shown on a webpage.
When a user clicks "login," the text values are transmitted to a server, which runs code to see if if the password is correct.
To accomplish this, the server will run code known as a SQL query, which looks like this.
It must first indicate what data is being retrieved from the database.
We wish to get
The server must also specify where in the database the value should be retrieved.
Let's pretend that all of the users' information is kept in a "users" table.
Finally, because the server does not want to get a massive list of passwords for every user in the database, it specifies that it only needs data for the account whose username equals a specific value.
The on the user's input, so the actual instruction sent to the SQL database would look like this, where username equals Philby.
It's also worth noting that SQL commands terminate in a semicolon.
So, how can one get around this?
By using a fraudulent username with
For example, we may send the server the following unusual username:
When the server inserts this text into the SQL query, it appears as follows:
As previously stated, semicolons are used to divide commands, therefore this
Of course, we have no idea what "whatever"
is, so we'll make a mistake and be rejected by the server.
If no user named "whatever" exists, the database will return no password or an error, and the server will reject us once more.
We don't mind in either case because we're more users," which we injected by modifying the username column.
This command tells the SQL database to delete the table that contains all of the user's information.
Which would cause a slew of problems in a bank or, frankly, anywhere.
We didn't even hack into the system it's not like we got the username and password correctly.
This is a fairly basic example of code injection,
With more complex attacks,
to steal credit card numbers, social security numbers, and other sensitive information.
Programmers should always presume that input from the outside is potentially harmful, just as they should with buffer overflows.
As a first line
Working exploits are frequently bought and sold on the internet.
The higher the more common the problem is.
Even governments have been known for espionage reasons.
" occurs when software's designers were unaware of.
Before white hat programmers produce to its full potential.
This is why keeping your computer's software up to date is critical; many of those downloads are security fixes.
If enough systems, hackers can develop a program that computer, known as a "worm."
If a hacker is able utilized to form a botnet.
This can be used for a variety Service (DDoS) assaults against servers.
When all phony messages, this is known as a DDoSattack.
This can take down services to force owners to pay a ransom or simply to be bad.
They cost the world economy almost half a trillion dollars per year, and the cost will only rise as we become more reliant on computers.This is especially concerning for governments, as infrastructure such as power plants, the electrical grid, traffic lights, water treatment facilities, oil refineries, air traffic control, and many other critical
Many analysts believe that the next major war will be fought in cyberspace, with nations being brought to their knees by destroying their economy
– possibly even higher than in conventional conflict.
As a result, we should all practice proper cybersecurity.
Furthermore, as a community connected by the internet, we must ensure that our computers are protected from those who desire to exploit them for their high potential for harm.
Thank you for taking the time to read this.
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