What is Artificial Intelligence?

Artificial intelligence is intelligence exhibited by robots instead of normal intelligence, which includes consciousness and emotionality and is demonstrated by humans and animals. AGI is the term used to describe strong AI, while ABI is used to describe attempts to mimic ‘normal’ intelligence. Machines that emulate “cognitive” tasks that humans equate with the human mind, such as “learning” and “problem-solving,” are often referred to as “artificial intelligence.” The AI effect is a process that occurs as computers become more capable and functions that are thought to include «intelligence» are omitted from the concept of AI.


HOW DOES ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE WORK?
AI allows machines to learn automatically from patterns or features in the data by mixing vast volumes of data with quick, iterative analysis and intelligent algorithms. AI is a general field of research that encompasses a wide range of hypotheses, approaches, and technologies, as well as the main subfields mentioned below:

*Machine learning automates the development of computational models. It finds secret perspectives in data using approaches from neural networks, mathematics, operations analysis, and physics without being specifically configured on where to look or what to infer.

*A neural network is a type of machine learning that is made up of interconnected units (like neurons) that processes information by responding to external inputs, relaying information between each unit. The process requires multiple passes at the data to find connections and derive meaning from undefined data.

*Deep learning uses huge neural networks with many layers of processing units, taking advantage of advances in computing power and improved training techniques to learn complex patterns in large amounts of data. Common applications include image and speech recognition.

*Cognitive computing is a subfield of AI that strives for natural, human-like interaction with machines. Using AI and cognitive computing, the ultimate goal is for a machine to simulate human processes through the ability to interpret images and speech – and then speak coherently in response.  

*Computer vision relies on pattern recognition and deep learning to recognize what’s in a picture or video. When machines can process, analyze and understand images, they can capture images or videos in real-time and interpret their surroundings.

*Natural language processing (NLP) is the ability of computers to analyze, understand and generate human language, including speech. The next stage of NLP is natural language interaction, which allows humans to communicate with computers using normal, everyday language to perform tasks.

Examples of Artificial Intelligence: Work & School

  • 1 – Google’s AI-Powered Predictions. …
  • 2 – Ridesharing Apps Like Uber and Lyft. …
  • 3 — Commercial Flights Use an AI Autopilot.
  • 1 – Spam Filters.
  • 2 – Smart Email Categorization.
  • 1 –Plagiarism Checkers. …
  • 2 –Robo-readers. …
  • 1 – Mobile Check Deposits.

HISTORY OF AI

Maturation of Artificial Intelligence (1943-1952)

The year 1943: The first work which is now recognized as AI was done by Warren McCulloch and Walter pits in 1943. They proposed a model of artificial neurons.


The year 1949: Donald Hebb demonstrated an updating rule for modifying the connection strength between neurons. His rule is now called Hebbian learning.

The year 1950: Alan Turing was an English mathematician and pioneered Machine learning in 1950. Alan Turing publishes “Computing Machinery and Intelligence” in which he proposed a test. The test can check the machine’s ability to exhibit intelligent behaviour equivalent to human intelligence, called a Turing test.

The birth of Artificial Intelligence (1952-1956)

  1. The year 1955: An Allen Newell and Herbert A. Simon created the “first artificial intelligence program”Which was named “Logic Theorist”. This program had proved 38 of 52 Mathematics theorems, and find new and more elegant proofs for some theorems.
  2. The year 1956: The word “Artificial Intelligence” first adopted by American Computer scientist John McCarthy at the Dartmouth Conference. For the first time, AI coined as an academic field.

At that time high-level computer languages such as FORTRAN, LISP, or COBOL were invented. And the enthusiasm for AI was very high at that time.

The golden years-Early enthusiasm (1956-1974)

  1. The year 1966: The researchers emphasized developing algorithms that can solve mathematical problems. Joseph Weizenbaum created the first chatbot in 1966, which was named ELIZA.
  2. The year 1972: The first intelligent humanoid robot was built in Japan which was named WABOT-1.

The first AI winter (1974-1980)

  1. The duration between the years 1974 to 1980 was the first AI winter duration. AI winter refers to the time period where computer scientist dealt with a severe shortage of funding from the government for AI researches.
  2. During AI winters, an interest in publicity on artificial intelligence was decreased.

A boom of AI (1980-1987)

  • The year 1980: After AI winter duration, AI came back with an “Expert System”. Expert systems were programmed that emulate the decision-making ability of a human expert.
  • In the Year 1980, the first national conference of the American Association of Artificial Intelligence was held at Stanford University.

The second AI winter (1987-1993)

  • The duration between the years 1987 to 1993 was the second AI Winter duration.
  • Again Investors and the government stopped funding for AI research due to high cost but not efficient result. The expert system such as XCON was very cost-effective.

The emergence of intelligent agents (1993-2011)

  • The year 1997: In the year 1997, IBM Deep Blue beats world chess champion, Gary Kasparov, and became the first computer to beat a world chess champion.

  • The year 2002for the first time, AI entered the home in the form of Roomba, a vacuum cleaner.

  • The year 2006: AI came into the Business world till the year 2006. Companies like Facebook, Twitter, and Netflix also started using AI.

Deep learning, big data and artificial general intelligence (2011-present)

  • The year 2011: In the year 2011, IBM’s Watson won jeopardy, a quiz show, where it had to solve complex questions as well as riddles. Watson had proved that it could understand natural language and can solve tricky questions quickly.
  • The year 2012: Google has launched an Android app feature “Google now”, which was able to provide information to the user as a prediction.
  • The year 2014: In the year 2014, Chatbot “Eugene Goostman” won a competition in the infamous “Turing test.”
  • The year 2018: The “Project Debater” from IBM debated on complex topics with two master debaters and also performed extremely well.
  • Google has demonstrated an AI program “Duplex” which was a virtual assistant and which had taken hairdresser appointment on call, and the lady on the other side didn’t notice that she was talking with the machine.

Now AI has developed to a remarkable level. The concept of Deep learning, big data, and data science are now trending like a boom. Nowadays companies like Google, Facebook, IBM, and Amazon are working with AI and creating amazing devices. The future of Artificial Intelligence is inspiring and will come with high intelligence.


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